Nicholas O'Regan

Marketing and Strategy Department 

Nicholas O'Regan

Position: Professor in Strategy
Email: n.oregan@aston.ac.uk
Room: 227

Nicholas is Professor in Strategy at Aston Business School, After completing his Phd in Strategy and Leadership at Middlesex University, he has held appointments as Professor of Strategy at Middlesex University, Professor of Strategy, Enterprise and Innovation at Bristol Business School and until 2019 was Associate Dean - Research and Innovation for the Faculty of Business and Law at UWE Bristol. He began his career in the public sector as the youngest local authority and harbour board chief executive in Ireland. He then undertook further post-graduate studies in the UK, after which he held chief officer positions in UK local government heading departments ranging from economic development, industrial development and strategic planning.

 

  • 2001: PGCHE [Middlesex University]
  • 2000: PhD [Middlesex University]
  • 1997: MBA [University of North London]
  • 1988: MSc (Public Sector Management) [University of Aston, Birmingham]
  • 1978: BA [Dublin]
  • 2004–2007 Middlesex University - Professor of Strategic Management 
  • 1997-2004 Middlesex University, Doctoral studies, Senior Lecturer and Principal Lecturer
  • 1992-1997 Bedford Borough Council – Chief Officer
  • 1990-1992 Wrekin District Council – Head of European Affairs
  • 1988-1990 Nottingham City Council – Senior European Liaison Officer
  • 1979-1987 Kilrush District Council – Town Clerk & Chief Executive
Nicholas is currently not teaching any full time modules

Nicholas's research interests are mainly strategy related and falls into the following areas:

  • strategic thinking and practice
  • technology and innovation
  • enterprise
  • Accelerated SME Growth - European Social Fund Objective 4, Priority 2.2 Training and Development for target groups within the workforce (£201,000). Note: This application received maximum marks in the selection process and was placed at number 1 in the research awards in the UK.
  • Fast Track SME Technology Deployment, £250,000 Virtual Value Chain Management in SMEs, £40,000 British Academy 2007-2009
  • Strategic Thinking £7,430 ESRC Business Engagement 2008 - £25,000
  • ESRC Business Engagement 2010 £13,000
  • ESRC Seminar series 2011 £18,000
  • ESRC Business Growth 2012 £100,000
  • ESRC Research Seminar Series 2013 £38,000
  • From 2013-2019, Nicholas was Associate Dean for Research and Innovation, and oversaw faculty funding applications
Students wishing to pursue a Phd in strategy related issues are encouraged to contact Nicholas. 
* Fellow Academy of Social Sciences * Fellow British Academy of Management * Strategic Management Society
  • O’Regan, N., with Burton, N., and Sarpong D., (2019), Architectural correspondence, architectural misting and innovation: new perspectives, Strategic Change [forthcoming]
  • O’Regan, N., with Psychogios, A., Blakcori, F., Szamosi, L., (2019) "From feeding-back to feeding-forward: managerial feedback as a trigger of change in SMEs", Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 26 Issue: 1, pp.18-42 [ABS 2*]
  • Mitra, A. and O'Regan, N. (2019) Creative leadership within the cyber asset market: An interview with Dame Inga Beale. Journal of Management Inquiry. ISSN 1056-4926 [In Press] Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/38793 Published online 21 February 2019 https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492619828837
  • O’Regan, N with Veettil, NMK, Ireland, RD, Pati, RK and Ghobadian, A., (2018) Business Model - Performance Relationship under External and Internal Contingencies: Evidence from SMEs in an Emerging Economy, in Long Range Planning 51 (5). pp. 750-769. ISSN 0024-6301, [ABS3*]
  • Hughes T., and O’Regan N., (2018) Branding in a digital world: Discussion based on an interview with Paul Geddes CEO of Direct Line Group, in Marketing Review Vol.18 No.2 (Spring 2018)
  • Hughes, T., Webber, D., and O’Regan N., (2017) Achieving wider impact in business and management: analysing the case studies from REF 2014, Studies in Higher Education[ABS 3*]
  • Mitra, A., O’Regan, N., and Sarpong, D., (2017) Cloud resource adaptation: A resource based perspective on value creation for corporate growth, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol 130, pp.28-38 [ABS 3*].
  • Bolden, R, and O’Regan, N., (2017), Leadership and Creativity in Public Services: An interview with Lord Bichard, Chair of the National Audit office, Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 25(4) 438–446
  • O’Regan, N with Parry G., Bustinza O., Vendrell-Herrero F., (2016) Internationalization of Product-Service Systems: Global, Regional or National Strategy? Foresight and STI Governance, vol. 10, no 1, pp. XX–XX. ISSN 2500-2597
  • O’Regan, N., and Bolden R., (2016) Digital Disruption and the Future of Leadership: An interview with Rick Haythornthwaite, Chairman of Centrica and MasterCard, Journal of Management Inquiry, 25(4), pp.438-446, ISSN 1056-4926[ABS 3*].
  • Hile, Q., Ghobadian , A., Gallear D., and O’Regan, N, (2016), Towards conceptualizing reverse service supply chains, in Supply Chain Management 21(2):166-179 [ABS 3*]
  • O’Regan, N., Li, W., Liu, K., Belitski, M (2016) Maximising business competitiveness of SMEs in digital age through business and IT alignment: an empirical study towards a diagnostic model of e-leadership, Journal of Informational Technology, 31 (2). pp. 185-206. ISSN 0268-3962 [ABS 3*]
  • O’Regan, N., with Webber, D., and Ghobadian, A., (2016), The Changing Influence of Societal Culture on Job Satisfaction Across Europe, British Management of Management [ABS 4*] Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 606–627
  • O’Regan, N., with Hile, Q., and Ghobadian, A., (2016), Second-life retailing: a reverse service supply business model designed to enhance sustainability and reduce waste, Journal of Supply Chain Management, [ABS 3*],Vol. 21 Iss: 2, pp.259 - 272
  • O’Regan, N., with Grattan, R., and Parry, G., (2015) Strategic Defence Review 1998: Politics, Power and Influence in Government Decisions, Strategic Change pp1-16 2015
  • O'Regan, N., with Phillips, W., Lee H., and James, P., (2014), Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Review in Group & Organization Management [ABS 3*].
  • O'Regan N., with Rajwani, T., Liedong, T., and Ghobadian, A., (2014), Toward a View of Complementarity: Trust and Policy Influence Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Political Activity (CPA)" in Group & Organization Management [ABS 3*].
  • O’Regan, N., Jones, O., V. Ancliff and Ghobadian, A., (2013), Dynamic capabilities in a sixth generation family firm: A study of the Bibby Line, Journal of Business History [published on line 23 Feb 2013 DOI:10.1080/00076791.2012.744590 [ABS 4*]
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear N., Li, R., Cholderhouse P, and Naim, M., (2013), An environmental uncertainty-based diagnostic reference tool for evaluating the performance of supply chain value streams, Planning, Production & Control, Volume 25, Issue 13-14, pp. 1182-1197 [ABS 3*]
  • O’Regan, N., Kling G., Hitt, M., and Ghobadian, A., (2013), The impact of internationalization and diversification across industries on firm valuation and risk: Why do regional MNEs lack global ambition? British Journal of Management, Vol.25, pp.S116-S132 [ABS 4*]
  • O’Regan, N., with Parnell, J., Dent E and Hughes T., (2012), Managing Performance in a volatile environment; Contrasting perspectives on luck and causality, British Journal of Management, Volume 23, Issue Supplement S1, pages S104–S118, March 2012 [ABS 4*]
  • O’Regan, N., and Kling, G., (2011), Technology Outsourcing in Manufacturing SMEs: Another Competitive Resource? R&D Management, Vol.41, 1: 92-105, [ABS 3*]
  • Hughes, T., O'Regan, N., Wornham, D., Grisoni, L., and Bence, D., (2011), Scholarship That Matters: Academic/Practitioner Engagement in Business & Management, Accepted for publication by Academy of Management Learning and Development, Vol.10, No.1, pp.40-57, [ABS 3*]
  • O’Regan, N., with Hughes T., Grisoni, L., and Bence, D., (2012), Marketing as an applied science: Lessons from other business disciplines, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.46, Number 1/2, pp. 92-111, [ABS 3*]
  • Kling, G., Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2009) Organic growth and shareholder value; a case study of the insurance industry, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 168-179. [ABS 3*]
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M., (2008), Identifying high technology small firms: a sectoral analysis, Technovation, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 408-423 [ABS 3*].
  • Vendrell-Herrero, F., Parry, G., Busitnza, O.F., and O’Regan, N, (2014), Servitisation as a driver for organizational change, Strategic Change, Volume 23, Issue 3-4 , Pages 125–132
  • O’Regan, N and Ghobadian, A., (2014) "A Case study and interview with Jill McDonald, Chief Executive and President of McDonald’s Northern European Division Journal of Strategy and Management
  • Sarpong, D., and O’Regan, N., (2014), The Organising Dimensions of Strategic Foresight in High-Velocity Environments, Strategic Change, Volume 23, Issue 5-6, Pages 279-286
  • Loonam, J., McDonagh, J., Kumar, V., and O’Regan, N., (2014), Top Managers and information Systems: Crossing the Rubicon! Strategic Change, Vol 23, Issue 3-4 pp. 205-224
  • Sarpong, D, O'Regan, N., Ghobadian, A and MacLean, M., (2013), Relational Pluralism: Organizational Foresight in Practice, Academy of Management Proceedings 2013 2013:12687; doi:10.5465/AMBPP.2013.48
  • O’Regan, N., and Parnell, J., (2013), Strategic Change in Emerging Markets: An Overview Strategic Change Volume 22, Issue 5-6 Pages 241–242
  • Kumarai, A., Kumar, V., Brady, M., and O’Regan, N., (2013), the Strategic Implication of Monetary Control: An Empirical investigation of the Indian Economy, Strategic Change, Vol. 22, Issue 5-6, pp 327-338
  • Zamani, S., Parnell, J.A., Labbaf, H., and O’Regan, N., (2013) Strategic Change and Decision making in an emerging nation: An exploratory Assessment of Iranian Manufacturing Firms Strategic Change, Vol. 22, Issue 5-6, pp 355-370
  • O’Regan, N., (2012), Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Overview, Strategic Change, Vol. 21, Issue 5-6, pp 193-198
  • O’Regan, N., Sarpong, D., and Kumar, V., (2012), Servitization and Value Co-production in the UK Music Industry: An empirical study of consumer attitudes, International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 135, Issue 1 (2012), Pages 320-332
  • O’Regan, N., Kling, G., Ghobadian, A., and Perren, L., (2012) Strategic positioning and grand strategies for high technology SMEs, Strategic Change, Vol. 21, Issue 5-6, pp 199-215
  • Wu, Q., He, Q., Duan, Y., and O’Regan, N., (2012), Implementing dynamic capabilities for corporate strategic change towards sustainability Strategic Change, Vol. 21, Issue 5-6, pp 231-247
  • D’Souza, D., Kumar, V., Judge, M., and O’Regan, N., (2012), A Contextual study of the exercise of personal agency by mobile phone use, Strategic Change, Vol. 21, Issue 5-6, pp 285-298
  • O’Regan, N and Ghobadian, A., (2012) "Slowly but surely: Strategy and growth at John Lewis: Case study and interview with Sir Charlie Mayfield, Chief Executive, John Lewis Partnership’, Journal of Strategy and Management
  • O’Regan, N and Ghobadian, A., (2011) "BSkyB transformation from a new loss-making venture to a successful organisation: Case study and interview with Jeremy Darroch, Chief Executive of British Sky Broadcasting Group Plc", Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol. 4 Iss: 2, pp.180 – 190
  • O’Regan, N., Kluth, C., and Parnell, J., (2011), What drives performance: Environment or capabilities? Strategic Change Vol. 20 pp. 279-297
  • O’Regan, N., Kluth, C., and Parnell, J., (2011), The Demise of Strategic Groups as an Influence on Firm Performance: Lessons from the UK Plastics Industry, Strategic Change, Vol.20 Nos.3/4, pp. 111-126
  • O’Regan, N., with Veettill, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2011), Generic strategies and performance - evidence from manufacturing firms, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp.222-251
  • Collins, L., and O’Regan, N., (2011) "Editorial: research futures: a UK perspective", Journal of Family Business Management, Vol. 1 Iss: 2, pp.80 - 88
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T., Tucker, J and Collins L., (2010), Strategic thinking in Family Business, Strategic Change, Vol. 19, pp 57-76)
  • O’Regan, N., Veettil, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2010), Business-Level Strategy and Performance - The Moderating Effects of Environment and Structure, Management Decision, Vol. 48, No 6 p. 907-939.
  • Highly Commended Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2011
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2010) Revitalising an oil giant: An interview with Dr Tony Hayward, Chief Executive of BP, Journal of Strategy and Management, Volume: 3, Number: 2, Year: 2010, pp: 174-183
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2010) A serial successful strategic transformer of businesses: An interview with Anthony Habgood, Chairman of Whitbread plc, Reed Elsevier plc and former CEO and Chairman, Bunzl plc, Journal of Strategy and Management, Volume 3, Number 1, pp:72-78
  • Hughes, Tim and O'Regan, Nicholas and Wornham, David (2009) Let's talk: getting business and academia to collaborate. Journal of Business Strategy, 30 (5). pp. 50-56. ISSN 0275-6668 ABS 1*
  • O’Regan, N., Stainer, L., and Sims, M., (2009), Training in SMEs and its relationship to profitability, Int. J. Human Resources Development and Management, Vol. 10, No 2, pp 166-181
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M., and Hughes, T., (2009), The Effectiveness of Knowledge Networks: An Investigation of Manufacturing SMEs, Education and Training, Vol. 51, issue no 8/9, pp. 665-681.
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2009) Building a FTSE 100 company by hitting the sweet spot of strategy: An interview with Rod Aldridge OBE, Journal of Strategy and Management, Volume: 2, Number: 2, pp: 188-195
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2009) Interview with Sir Mike Rake, Chairman of BT, Journal of Strategy and Management, Volume: 2, Number: 3, Year: pp: 288-295
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2009) Successful strategic re-orientation: lessons from Cadbury's experience, An interview with Todd Stitzer, Chief Executive of Cadbury, Journal of Strategy and Management, Volume: 2Number: 4, Year: 2009, pp: 405-412
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T., and Wornham, D. (2009), Let’s talk: getting business and academia to collaborate, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 49-56
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T., and Wornham, D. (2008), The credibility issue: closing the academic/practitioner gap, Strategic Change, Vol 17, No. 7/8 pp. 215-233
  • Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N., Thomas, H., and Liu, J., (2008), Formal strategic planning, operating environment, size, sector and performance; Evidence from the UK’s manufacturing SMEs, Journal of General Management, Vol.34, No 2, pp. 1-20
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., Sims, M., (2008), Does R&D really drive Competitive Advantage and Performance?’ International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, Vol. 15, Nos.3/4, pp. 376-403.
  • O’Regan, N., and Vasilaki, A., (2008), Enhancing Post-Acquisition Organizational Performance: the Role of the Top Management Team, Team Performance Management, Vol14, No.3/4 pp.134-145.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Gallear. D., (2008) Digital/web-based technology and Purchasing/Supply Management: A UK Study, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 346-360
  • O'Regan, N., Sims, M.A., and Gallear, D., (2008), Leaders, Laggards, Loungers: The Strategic Planning-Environment-Performance Relationship Revisited in Manufacturing SMEs, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 19, Nos.1& 2, pp. 6-21
  • O’Regan, N., and Maclean, M., (2008), What makes good governance? An interview with Richard Lapthorne, Chairman, Cable and Wireless plc, Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 218-224.
  • O’Regan, N., and Maclean, M., (2008), What we need is an “entrepreneurial society” An interview with Professor David Audretsch, Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 110-113
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T., and Wornham, D. (2008), The credibility issue: closing the academic/practitioner gap, Strategic Change, Vol 17, No. 7/8 pp. 215-233
  • Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2008), Where do we fit in the swings and roundabouts of strategy?, Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 5-14
  • O’Regan, N., and Maclean, M., (2008), Leadership on an Industrial Journey: an interview with Sir John Parker, Chairman of the National Grid plc, Journal of Strategy and Management, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 111-117
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., Sims, M., (2008), Does R&D really drive Competitive Advantage and Performance?’ International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, Vol. 15, Nos.3/4, pp. 376-403.
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M., (2008), Identifying high technology small firms: a sectoral analysis, Technovation, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 408-423.
  • O’Regan, N., and Lehmann, U., (2008), The Impact of Strategy, Leadership and Culture on Organizational Performance, International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 303-322.
  • O’Regan, N., and Vasilaki, A., (2008), Enhancing Post-Acquisition Organizational Performance: the Role of the Top Management Team, Team Performance Management, Vol14, No.3/4 pp.134-145
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Gallear. D., (2008) Digital/web-based technology and Purchasing/Supply Management: A UK Study, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 346-360
  • O'Regan, N., Sims, M.A., and Gallear, D., (2008), Leaders, Laggards, Loungers: The Strategic Planning-Environment-Performance Relationship Revisited in Manufacturing SMEs, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 19, Nos.1& 2, pp. 6-21
  • Ghobadian, A., O'Regan, N, Thomas, H., and Gallear, D., (2007) Introduction To Hierarchy of Strategy: The State of Play”, Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, No.3, Vol. 45, pp 318-326.
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M, (2007), Demystifying data analysis in technology-orientated manufacturing firms Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management Volume 18 Numbers 5 and 6, pp.701-713.
  • O’Regan, N., and Oyata, S., (2007), Changing Japanese Management: Is the trend towards Western Style Management Sustainable? International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking ,Vol.2, No1. pp.45-58.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2007), Formal Strategic Planning: Annual Raindance or Wheel of Success? Strategic Change Vol. 16, Issues 1-2, pp. 11-22.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H.P. (2007), 'Public sector performance improvement through private sector management practices: a satisfactory solution?', International Journal of Business Performance Management, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 363-379.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2007) Leadership and its impact on the use of Process Technologies and Management Practices in the Manufacturing Sector sent to International Journal of Business Performance Management, Vol. 9, No.4, pp.419-433.
  • O’Regan, N, Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2007), Public Sector performance improvement through private sector management practices: a satisfactory solution? International Journal of Business Performance Management, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 363-379.
  • O’Regan, N., Dixon, B., and Ahmad S.J., (2006), Lower Costs Driving SME Competitive Advantage, International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, Vol1, No.4, pp.407-420.
  • O’Regan, N., with Parnell, J.A., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Measuring Performance in competitive strategy research, International Journal of Management & Decision Making, Vol. 7, No. 4:408-417
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), The Impact of Ownership on Small Firm Behaviour and Performance, International Small Business Journal, Vol.24(6): 555-586 [note this is one of the most downloaded articles from the journal]
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Innovation in NTBFs: Does leadership really matter? The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Vol2, No.2, June 2006
  • O’Regan, N., Gallear, D., Ahmad, S.J., (2006), E-commerce in manufacturing firms: panacea or myth? International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, Vol. 1(2):164-175
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Perceptions of Generic Strategies of Small and Medium Sized Engineering and Electronics Manufacturers in the UK: The Applicability of the Miles and Snow Typology, in Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. Vol. 17, No.5
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Sims, M., (2006), Fasttracking innovation in manufacturing SMEs, Technovation, Vol.25, Issue 2, Pages 251-261
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Gallear, D., (2006), Drivers of high growth firms, Technovation, Vol.26,No 1. pp.30-41
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M., (2006), In Search of Gazelles using a DNA research model, Technovation, Volume 26, Issue 8, August 2006, Pages 943-954
  • O’Regan, N., Ahmad, S.J., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), Leadership, decision making and internal stakeholder engagement, International Journal of Management and Decision Making, Vol. 6, Nos. 3/4, pp. 345-358
  • O'Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Sims, M., (2005), The link between Leadership, Strategy and Performance in Manufacturing SMEs', Journal of Small Business Strategy, Vol.15, No.2, pp. 45-57
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M and Ghobadian,A., (2005), High Performance: Ownership and Decision-making in SMEs, Management Decision, Vol. 43, No.2, pp.382-396
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), Innovation in SMEs: The Impact of Strategic Orientation and Environmental Perceptions, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 54, No.2, pp.81-97
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), Strategic Planning: A Comparison of High and Low Technology Manufacturing Firms, - Technovation, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 1107-1117
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), The Strategic planning process: a navigational tool for competitive advantage, International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, Vol.1, No.1 pp;63-80.
  • O’Regan, N., with Mole, K., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), ‘The use and deployment of soft process technologies within UK manufacturing SMEs: An empirical assessment using logit models’, Journal of Small Business Management, 42 (3), 303-324
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Drivers of performance in Small and Medium Sized organizations: An empirical assessment, International Journal of Business Performance Management, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 153-170.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Short and long term performance: Different targets, Different drivers, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 53, No.5:405-424 [Paper awarded Highly Commended Award by Literati Club 2005]
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Re-visiting the strategy-performance question: an empirical analysis, International Journal of Management and Decision Making, Vol.5, Nos. 2/3, pp. 144-170, ISBN 1462-4621.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), ‘Leadership and Strategy: Making it happen’, Journal of General Management, Vol. 29, No.4, pp: 76-92
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), ‘The importance of capabilities for strategic direction and performance’, Management Decision, Vol.42, No.2, pp. 292-312.
  • O’Regan, N., (2004), Testing the Homegeneity of SMEs, European Business Review Vol. 16, No.1, pp. 64-77
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M and Ghobadian, A., (2004), The Impact of management techniques on the performance of technology based firms, Technovation, Vol.24, No.3, pp 265-273.
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., and Mole K., (2003), New Process technologies – Barriers to Adoption in Small Firms, International Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol.5, Nos5/6, pp.549-562
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., and Ahmad, J, (2003), Managing for performance: corporate responsibility and internal stakeholders, International Journal of Business Performance, Vol.5, Nos.2/3, pp. 141-153.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Strategic Planning in Manufacturing SMEs – Overcoming the barriers to implementation’, Journal of Business Process Management, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 416-429.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Effective Strategic Planning in Small and Medium Sized Firms’, Management Decision, Vol. 40, No. 7, pp 663-671
  • O’Regan, N., (2002), ‘Market Share: The Conduit to Future Success’, European Business Review, Vol.14, No.4, pp. 287-293.
  • Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2002), ‘The Link between Culture and Strategy in Manufacturing SMEs, Journal of General Management, Vol. 28, No1 pp 37-56
  • Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2000), ‘Developing An Exploratory Model To Determine The Link Between Organisational Culture, Leadership Style and Contingency Factors On the Corporate Strategy of Manufacturing SMEs’, International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, Vol. 2, No.1-7, pp. 860-878. ISBN 1368-2148
  • Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2000), ‘Time to reassess the size criteria for SME classification? - An Empirical Investigation’, International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, Vol.2, No.1-7, pp. 879-890, ISBN 1368-2148.
  • Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N., and Liu, J., (2000), ‘Strategic Planning for SMEs’, Scenario and Strategy Planning, Vol.2, Issue 2, pp.18-22. 3.2

Edited Books

  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2004), Strategy and Performance: Achieving competitive advantage in the global market place, Palgrave MacMillan, London, 316 pages, ISBN 1-4039-1618-7
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2004), Public-Private Partnerships: Policy and Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, London, 318 pages, ISBN 1-4039-2061-3 3.3

Book Chapters

  • Mitra, A., O'Regan, N. and Ruan, X. (2014) Rays of uniqueness - cloud in multinational organisations: Challenge to traditional business system alignments. In: IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014, Sanya, China, 27-30 November 2014., pp. 91-103 – see http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45526-5_9
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M., (2010), What are high technology firms? And what drives their performance: an empirical investigation, in New Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium, Vol. VIII,
  • Oakey, R., Groen A., Cook, G., and van der Sijde P.,[eds], Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 173-189
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Ahmad S.J., (2008) Drivers of Strategic Direction in High technology firms in New Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium, Vol. VI
  • Groen A., Oakey, R., van der Sijde P., and Cook, G., [eds], Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 217-235.
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2004), “PPP – The instrument for transforming the Public services”, in Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., O’Regan, N. and Viney, H. (Eds.) Public-Private Partnerships: Policy and Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, London, ISBN 1-4039-2061-3, pp.1-11.
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2004), “The future of Public-Private Partnership”, in Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., O’Regan, N. and Viney, H. (Eds.) Public-Private Partnerships: Policy and Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, London, ISBN 1-4039-2061-3, pp.271-302.
  • O’Regan, N., with Ghobadian, A., Gallear, D., and Viney, H., (2004), Creating value in the new competitive landscape, in Achieving competitive Advantage in the global Market Place, Ghobadian et al (eds.) pp. 1-10. Palgrave Press, ISBN 1-4039-1618-7
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Strategy: The key to enhanced Performance, in Achieving competitive Advantage in the global Market Place, Ghobadian et al (eds.), pp. 132-161, Palgrave Press, ISBN 1-4039-1618-7
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2003), ‘The Strategic Planning of SMEs - A Comparison of High and Low Technology Manufacturing Small Firms’, High Technology Firms in the Millennium, Chapter 9.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Leadership: Realising the potential in High Technology Small Firms, in New Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium, Volume 111, During, W., Oakey, R, and Kauser, S., (eds), pp:9-31, Oxford:Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-044402-4
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), High technology small firms: Instilling innovation and Creativity, in New Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium, Volume IV, During et al (eds), Chapter 8, pp. 119-132, Oxford-Elsevier, ISBN: 0 08044619-1
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Mole, K., Viney, H., and Liu, J., (2002), ‘Strategic Management in UK Engineering and Electronics SMEs: A Factor Analysis’, in High Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium, Oakey et al (eds.), Chapter 10, pp. 153-168, ISBN 0 08 0441335.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2001), ‘Deploying Strategic Planning in high technology small firms: An empirical investigation’, High Technology Firms in the Millennium, Chapter 6.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (2000), ‘The Impact of the Operating Environment on Organisational Culture in High Technology SMEs - An Empirical Analysis’, High Technology-Based Firms at the Turn of the Century, During, W., Oakey, R., and Kipling, M. (eds.), Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 96-106, ISBN 0-08-043791-5
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (1999), ‘Understanding the Influences on the organisational capability of manufacturing SMEs - some empirical evidence’, in Bartezzaghi, E., Filippini, R., Spina, G., and Vinelli, A. (eds.), Managing Operations Networks, SGE Ditoriala, Padova, June 1999, pp.917-924, ISBN 88-86281-39-0
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (1998), ‘The Need to Rethink Strategy in SMEs’, in Stimulating Manufacturing Excellence in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, Edited by I.P. McCarthy and K. Ridgway, pp. 225-232, ISBN 1-85075-902-2 3.4

Refereed Conference Papers

  • O’Regan, N., with Venfrell-Herrero, Parry, G and Bustinza O.F., (2016), New Digital Markets: New Business Models, at Academy of Management Annual Conference
  • O'Regan, N. with Jones-Evans, D, Mackenzie, N., and Williams W., (2016), Understanding the Business Models of High Growth Traditional Family Firms – An Exploratory Study, at ISBE Annual Conference, Exeter.
  • O'Regan, N. with Mitra, A., and Ruan, X. (2014) Rays of uniqueness - cloud in multinational organisations: Challenge to traditional business system alignments, at the IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014, Sanya, China
  • Hughes, T. O'Regan, N. and Parry, G. (2012) Knowledge exchange: Getting practitioners to engage with universities, Engage HEI conference, 9-10 January, London O’Regan, N., Antcliff, V., Jones O., and Ghobadian, A., (2011), Examining the Sustainability of family firms: the case of LFB, paper accepted for presentation at ISBE 2011-09-20
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian A., and Perrin, L., (2011), CEO Cognition: Root-Metaphor, Strategic Attention and the Environment in proceedings of the Strategic Management Society annual conference, Miami Nominated for Best Conference Paper Award
  • O’Regan, N., Veettil, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2011), Experience based and readiness based approaches for implementing business level strategies, n Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Aston
  • O’Regan, N., Kluth, C.,and Parnell, J., (2011), What drives firm performance: environment or capabilities? in Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Aston
  • O’Regan, N., Kluth, C.,and Parnell, J., (2011) The demise of strategic groups, in Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Aston
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian A., Gallear, D., and Hile Q., (2011), Power Distribution and Knowledge Transfer in Context of a Key Cooperative Strategy: Supply Chain Partnership, in proceedings Academy of Management Annual Conference, San Antonia
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian A., and Urwin P., (2010), Technology Diffusion: Driving Innovation, in proceedings of the Strategic Management Society annual conference, Rome
  • Nandakumar, M K Ghobadian, A., O’Regan, N., (2010), Strategic Planning and Performance – the moderating effect of environment, Proceedings of the British Academy of Management conference, Sheffield
  • Buscha F., Ghobadian, A., Valeriya, K., and O’Regan, N., (2010), Strategic Decision Making and the role of Technology Deployment, Proceedings of the British Academy of Management conference, Sheffield
  • O’Regan, N., Kling, G., and Ghobadian A., (2009), Organic growth driving Shareholder value, in proceedings of the Strategic Management Society annual conference, Washington
  • O’Regan, N., and Kling, G., (2009), Outsourcing; a key strategic management decision, in proceedings of the Strategic Management Society annual conference, Washington
  • Veettil, N., Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2009), An Integrative framework for the Strategy process based on its theoretical roots. Proceedings of the British Academy of Management conference, Brighton
  • O’Regan, N., and Hughes, T., Tucker, T., and Collins, L., (2009) Strategic thinking in Family Business, in the proceedings of British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Brighton, UK
  • Hughes, T., Grisoni, L., O'Regan, N, and Wornham, D., (2009) Improving academic/practitioner engagement in marketing: what can we learn from other management disciplines? In: Academy of Marketing Conference, 7th - 9th July, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK.
  • O’Regan, N., and Hughes, T., Tucker, T., and Collins, L., (2009) Strategic thinking in Family Business, in the proceedings of IFERA annual conference, Cyprus.
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T.,and Wornham, D, (2008), Are we asking the right questions?: Closing the academic/practitioner gap in strategic management. Paper in the proceedings Academy of Management Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Kling, G., and Ghobadian, A., (2008), The Knowledge we have: Grand strategies in the practice of strategy. Proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Kling, G., and Ghobadian, A., (2008), A fresh look at Strategic decision-making and implementation, Proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Hughes, T.,and Wornham, D, (2008), Are we asking the right questions?: Closing the academic/practitioner gap in strategic management. Paper accepted for presentation at the Academy of Management Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A.,Urwin, P.,and Buscha A., (2008) Ownership and the Strategic behaviour of Small and medium sized manufacturing firms. Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Harrogate
  • O’Regan, N., Veettil, N., Ghobadian, A.,and Gallear, D., (2008), Generic Strategies and Performance, Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M., and Ghobadian, A., (2008), Outsourcing: Enhancing organisational performance, Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference 2008
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., Sims, M, and Gallear, D. (2007), Managerial constraints: Aligning Strategic Planning and Environmental Awareness, in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, San Diego 2007.
  • O’Regan, N., and Sims, M., (2007), What are high technology firms? And what drives their performance: an empirical investigation, in the proceedings of the High Technology Small Firms annual conference, Manchester.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Sims, M, (2007), The Use of technology levels to differentiate firms: An outdated approach or reality?, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Warwick
  • O’Regan, N., Vasaliki , A., and Ghobadian, A., (2007), Measuring post-acquisition performance: a meta-analysis and a proposed agenda for future research, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Warwick [Paper awarded Best Paper award for the Strategy Track]
  • O’Regan, N., Veettill, N.M.K., Ghobadian, A., and Gallear, D. (2007), Strategy formulation and implementation – the impact of performance in manufacturing firms, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Warwick
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Thomas, H., (2006), Strategic thinking: Driving Achievement In then proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Vienna, 2006
  • O’Regan, N., MacKinnon, A., and Liu, J., (2006), Chinese Management: Its alignment with international Management, in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Vienna, 2006
  • O’Regan. N., Ghobadian, A., and Thomas, H., (2006), Strategic thinking: Shaping Strategy for enhanced performance, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Belfast
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), The Impact of Firm Ownership on organizational Behaviour and Performance, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Belfast
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Thomas, H., (2006), Strategic thinking and competitive advantage, in the proceedings of the Euram annual conference, Oslo
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Ownership and organizational performance: a comparison across the principal drivers of strategy, in the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Atlanta, 2006
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Does Leadership really drive innovation? In the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Atlanta, 2006
  • O’Regan, N., Liu, J., and MacKinnon, A., (2006), Internationalizing Chinese Management, in the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Atlanta, 2006
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M., and Gallear, D., (2006), The Strategic planning-environment-performance relationship re-visited in HTSFs, in the proceedings of the High Technology Small Firms annual conference, Twente
  • O’Regan, N., Vasilaki, A., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Leadership Revisited In The Context Of Post-Acquisition Integration Process, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Belfast
  • O’Regan, N., Veettil, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2006), Operationalising Business Level Generic Strategies, in the porceedings of the British Academy of Management Conference, Belfast
  • O’Regan. N., Ghobadian, A., and Thomas, H., (2006), Strategic thinking: Driving achievement, in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society conference, Atlanta, Georgia, US
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), Organizational behaviour and performance: does ownership really matter?, in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Florida, 2005
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Gallear, D., (2005), What really drives Gazelle firms? In the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Hawaii, 2005
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2005), Small and Medium-Sized Firm Behavior and Performance: The Role of Ownership, in the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Hawaii, 2005
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Ahmad, J.,(2005), The Applicability of generic strategies to manufacturing Small firms, Paper accepted for presentation at High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester 2005
  • Parnell, J.A., Ghobadian, A., and O’Regan, N., (2004), Combination strategies reassessed: Evidence from UK engineering and electronics firms, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. St. Andrews, Scotland
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M, and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Does Ownership and the level that Decisions are made affect Performance? - Evidence from Manufacturing SMEs, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. St. Andrews, Scotland
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), The Relationship between Organizations and their Operating Environment: Managers perceptions using metaphors, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. St. Andrews, Scotland
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2004), Seeing the Organization in the Marketplace through Metaphors: the Road to Performance, paper in Kehoe, W.J., and Whitten, L.K., Proceedings of the Society for Marketing Advances Annual Conference 2004, Florida, ISBN 0-9676059-5-4
  • O’Regan, N., Sims, M, and Ghobadian, A., (2004), High Performance: Organizational Structure, Ownership and Decision-making in HTSFs, in the proceedings Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference, Twente, 2004
  • O’Regan, N. and Ahmad, J., (2003), The puzzle of high performance, paper in the proceedings of the European Small Business Conference, Milan, September 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), Managing short-term and long-term performance, in the proceedings of British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Harrogate, September 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), Enhancing CEO Effectiveness, in the proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Harrogate, September 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), HTSFs: Size, Profitability and Performance, in the proceedings of the Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester, June 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), Instilling innovation and creativity, in the proceedings of the Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester, June 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), Strategic orientation: Back to the future?, in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society, Baltimore, November 2003.
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2003), Refocusing performance – a strategy centred approach, in the proceedings of the Academy of Management Annual Conference, Seattle, August 2003
  • O’Regan, N. and Admad, J., (2003), Innovation and competitiveness: The SME Case, paper in the proceedings of the European Small Business Conference, Milan, September 2003
  • O’Regan, N., Ahmad, S.J., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘CSR and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Employee Participation in Two UK SME Sectors’ in the proceedings of tThe Conference on Business Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility, London.
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘ Hitting the Bull’s Eye – Driving Competitive Strategy’ in the proceedings British Academy of Management Annual Conference, London, September 2002
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Are Managing Directors as Good as They Say They Are?’ in the proceedings British Academy of Management Annual Conference, London, September 2002
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘The Changing Environment, Strategic Planning and Performance’ in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Insead, October 2002
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Closing the Culture-Leadership-Strategy loop’ in the proceedings of the Strategic Management Society Annual Conference, Insead
  • O'Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Leadership – Realising the Potential in High Technology Small Firms’, in the proceedings of the High Technology Small Firms Conference, Enschede, Netherlands
  • O’Regan N., Ahmad, J., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘Workforce Involvement: A Key to Business Performance Success in Manufacturing Firms’, in the proceedings British Academy of Management Annual Conference, London
  • O’Regan N., Ahmad, J., and Ghobadian, A., (2002), ‘An Assessment Of Innovation Strategy In Manufacturing SMEs’, in the proceedings British Academy of Management Annual Conference, London
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2001), Does formal strategic planning enhance performance? Paper presented at Strategic Management Society: 21st Annual International Conference, San Franscisco.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2001), Strategic planning capabilities and performance, Paper presented at International Business and Economics Conference De Pere, Wisconsin.
  • O’Regan, N. and Ahmad, J., (2001), Organisational Capability- A Forgotten Opportunity or the next panacea for competitiveness’, paper presented at the European Small Business Seminar, Dublin.
  • O’Regan, N., and Ghobadian, A., (2001), ‘Strategic Planning - A Comparison of High and Low Technology Manufacturing Small Firms’ in the proceedings of The High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester.
  • Ghobadian, A., Mole, K., O’Regan, N., Viney, H., and Liu, J., (2001), Strategic Management in UK Engineering and Electronics SMEs: A Factor Analysis, in the proceedings of the High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester.
  • Ghobadian, A., Mole, K., O’Regan, N., Liu J., (2001), ‘Technology Deployment in UK Manufacturing SMEs’, in Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2001, Babson College, ISBN 0-910-897-22-0.
  • O’Regan, N. and Ghobadian, A., (2001), Deploying and maximising Organisational Capability’, in the proceedings British Academy of Management Conference, 5-7 September 2001, Cardiff University, ISBN 0 9537301 0 9.
  • Ghobadian, A., Mole, K., O’Regan, N., and Liu J., (2001), ‘Technology Deployment in UK Manufacturing SMEs’, in the proceedings of the Fourth SMESME International Conference, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 398-405, ISBN:87:89867-81-5.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (2000), The Strategic Orientation of SMEs in the UK, paper presented at the British Academy of Management Conference, Edinburgh.
  • Ghobadian, A., Mole, K., O’Regan, N., and Liu, J., (2000), The Strategic Management of Manufacturing SMEs, paper presented at the British Academy of Management Conference, Edinburgh.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (2000), ‘The Barriers to the Deployment of Strategic Planning in high technology small firms: An empirical investigation’, High Technology Small Firms Conference, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, Vol. 2, pp. 481-495.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (1999), The Impact of Strategic Planning on Small Business Performance’, in Proceedings of 29th European Small Business Seminar, Portugal, pp.355-370.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (1999), ‘The Dynamics of Organisational capability of Manufacturing SMEs- An Empirical Investigation’, in Proceedings of the British Academy of Management Annual Conference, 1-3 September 1999, The Manchester Metropolitan University, p. 1223, ISBN 0-9053043-27-6.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (1999), ‘The Impact of the Operating Environment on Organisational Culture in High Technology SMEs - An Empirical Analysis’, High Technology Small Firms Conference, Manchester Business School, Vol. 2, pp. 47-57.
  • O’Regan, N. and Liu, J., (1999), ‘Maximising Results in SMEs using the Strategic Re-alignment Model’, Adapt, Survive and Thrive Conference, August, Plymouth University, pp.47-55.
  • O’Regan, N., and Liu, J., (1998), ‘Maximising Employment Creation in Small Business Using Strategic Re-Alignment’, 25th International Small Business Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 8 pages.
  • O’Regan, N., Ghobadian, A., and Liu, J., (1998), ‘Enhancing Competitive Advantage in SMEs’, in Creating Jobs: New Demands on SMEs and their Support Partners, European Small Business Seminar, European Foundation for Management Development, Vol.2, and pp.557-569, Vienna.