Dr Andrew Schofield

Reader in Psychology

Andrew Schofield 001
School of Life & Health Sciences
Aston University

Birmingham, B4 7ET                                                        

Phone:+44 (0)121 204 3313 

Email: a.schofield@aston.ac.uk

Room: SW410d

Research Group

Basic and Applied Neurosciences Group

The Centre for Vision and Hearing Research 

The Aston Laboratory for Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) 

Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing (ARCHA)

I joined the Department of Psychology as a Reader in October 2018 having previously been a Senior Lecturer at the University of Birmingham.

I have been working in the field of Visual Perception for nearly 30 years but have always combined this with a strong interest in Computer Vision and Machine Learning including Neural Networks.  


  • BEng, Brunel University, 1990
  • PhD, Communication and Neuroscience, Keele University 1994
  • Diploma in Psychology, Open University, 1996
  • PGCert Learning and teaching in Higher Education, University of Birmingham, 2001
  • 2016 – 2018: Deputy Director of Education, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
  • 2006-2018: Senior Lecturer, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
  • 1999-2006: Lecturer, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
  • 1996-1999: Research Fellow, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
  • 1995-1996: Senior Scientific Officer, Forensic Science Service.
  • 1993-1995: Research Fellow, Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Brunel University.
Second year Research Methods and Advances Statistics.

My research focuses on human visual perception with applications in computer vision and robotics. I also study changes in visual perception in older adults.

My main focus is on the perception of visual texture (second-order vision) and how this enables humans to distinguish between changes in illumination from changes in the material properties of surfaces. This is combined with an interest in shape-from-shading, the role of shadows in object perception, and depth perception.

In Computer Vision the same mechanisms that we think are used by humans to separate illumination and material changes can be used by machines for the same purpose (intrinsic image extraction). Here I am also interested on how human edge and surface processing can be modelled with machine learning and deep neural networks to aid in the reconstruction of 3D shape from 2D images.

Older adults find it harder to see visual texture than younger adults and this may lead to difficulty in judging the shape of uneven surfaces such as steps. Here I am interested in how step markings might be manipulated to influence toe clearance in older adults.

I am a member of the Basic and Applied Neurosciences Group https://www2.aston.ac.uk/lhs/research/centres-facilities/basic-and-applied-neurosciences. The Centre for Vision and Hearing Research https://www2.aston.ac.uk/lhs/research/centres-facilities/cvhr, The Aston Laboratory for Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) https://www2.aston.ac.uk/lhs/research/centres-facilities/alive and the Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing (ARCHA) https://www2.aston.ac.uk/lhs/research/centres-facilities/archa

Reconstructing 3D structure from single images: a perceptual reconstruction approach. 2019-2022, EPSRC, ~£1,500,000 FEC, Joint with Computer Science at Surrey and Psychology at Southampton.

Visual Image Interpretation in Humans and Machines, 2014-2017, EPSRC Network, ~£140,000 joint with Computer Science at Bath.

  • Austyn Tempesta (University of Birmingham)
  • Krishna Perumal (University of Birmingham)
  • Hannah Broadbent (Joint ESRC Midlands Graduate School studentship with University of Nottingham).
  • Timmion Skervin (External advisor, Liverpool John Moores University).
  • Fellow Higher Education Academy
  • Member Applied Vision Association
  • Member British Machine Vision Association
  • Member Vision Sciences Society

Schofield, A, Gilchrist, I, Bloj, M, Leonardis, A & Bellotto, N 2018, 'Understanding images in biological and computer vision' Interface Focus, vol. 8, no. 4, 20180027. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2018.0027

Schofield, A, Curzon-Jones, B & Hollands, M 2017, 'Reduced sensitivity for visual textures affects judgments of shape-from-shading and step climbing behaviour in older adults' Experimental Brain Research, vol. 235, no. 2, pp. 573-583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4816-0

Georgeson, MA & Schofield, A 2016, 'Binocular functional architecture for detection of contrast-modulated gratings' Vision Research, vol. 128, pp. 68-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2016.09.005

Schofield, A & Kingdom, F 2014, 'Texture variations suppress suprathreshold brightness and colour variations' PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114803

Dovencioglu, D, Ban, H, Schofield, A & Welchman, A 2013, 'Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3-D cues in the human brain' Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1527-1541. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00417

Dövencioĝlu, DN, Welchman, AE & Schofield, AJ 2013, 'Perceptual learning of second order cues for layer decomposition' Vision Research, vol. 77, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2012.11.005

Mazzilli, G & Schofield, A 2013, 'A Cue-Free Method to Probe Human Lighting Biases' Perception, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 932-940. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7517

Schofield, A, Sun, P & Mazzilli, G 2013, Observations on Shape-from-Shading in Humans. in Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5195-1_8

Sun, P & Schofield, A 2012, 'Two operational modes in the perception of shape from shading revealed by the effects of edge information in slant settings.' Journal of Vision, vol. 12, no. 1, 12. https://doi.org/10.1167/12.1.12

Schofield, A, Rock, PB & Georgeson, MA 2011, 'Sun and sky: does human vision assume a mixture of point and diffuse illumination when interpreting shape-from-shading?' Vision Research, vol. 51, no. 21-22, pp. 2317-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2011.09.004

Sun, P & Schofield, A 2011, 'The efficacy of local luminance amplitude in disambiguating the origin of luminance signals depends on carrier frequency: Further evidence for the active role of second-order vision in layer decomposition.' Vision Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 496-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2011.01.008

Jiang, X, Schofield, AJ & Wyatt, JL 2011, Shadow detection based on colour segmentation and estimated illumination. in  Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 2011., 104327, British Machine Vision Association, BMVA, 22nd British Machine Vision Conference, Dundee, United Kingdom, 29/08/11. https://doi.org/10.5244/C25.87

Rotshtein, P, Schofield, A, Funes, M & Humphreys, G 2010, 'Effects of spatial frequency bands on perceptual decision: It is not the stimuli but the comparison' Journal of Vision, vol. 10, no. 10, 25. https://doi.org/10.1167/10.10.25

Schofield, A, Rock, PB, Sun, P, Jiang, X & Georgeson, MA 2010, 'What is second-order vision for? Discriminating illumination versus material changes' Journal of Vision, vol. 10, no. 9, 2. https://doi.org/10.1167/10.9.2

Jiang, X, Schofield, A & Wyatt, J 2010, 'Correlation-Based Intrinsic Image Extraction from a Single Image' Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6314, pp. 58-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15561-1_5

Georgeson, MA, Yates, TA & Schofield, A 2009, 'Depth propagation and surface construction in 3-D vision' Vision Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2008.09.030

Georgeson, MA, Yates, TA & Schofield, A 2008, 'Discriminating depth in corrugated stereo surfaces: facilitation by a pedestal is explained by removal of uncertainty' Vision Research, vol. 48, no. 21, pp. 2321-2328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2008.07.009

Riddoch, M, Humphreys, G, Akhtar, N, Allen, H, Bracewell, R & Schofield, A 2008, 'A tale of two agnosias: Distinctions between form and integrative agnosia' Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 56-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643290701848901

Schofield, A, Ledgway, T & Hutchinson, CV 2007, 'Asymmetric transfer of the dynamic motion aftereffect between first- and second-order cues and among different second-order cues' Journal of Vision, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1167/7.8.1

Schofield, A, Bishop, NJ & Allen, J 2006, 'Oscillatory motion induces change blindness' Acta Psychologica, vol. 121, pp. 249-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2005.06.005

Schofield, A.J., Heese, G., Rock. P.B., & Georgeson, M.A. (2006) Local luminance amplitude modulates the interpretation of shape from shading in textured surfaces. Vision Research, 46, 3462-3482

Cruickshank, AG & Schofield, A 2005, 'Transfer of tilt effects between second-order cues' Spatial vision, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 379-398. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568568054389624

Schofield, A.J, & Yates, T.A, (2005) Interactions between orientation and contrast modulations suggest limited cross-cue linkage. Perception, 34, pp 769-792

Georgeson, MA & Schofield, A 2003, 'Shading and texture: Separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?' Spatial vision, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 59-76. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685680260433913

Schofield, A & Georgeson, MA 2003, 'Sensitivity to contrast modulation: The spatial frequency dependence of second-order vision' Vision Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 243-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(02)00542-4

Schofield, A.J, & Georgeson, M.A., (2000) The temporal properties of first- and second-order vision. Vision Research, 40, pp 2475-2487

Schofield, A.J, (2000) What does second-order vision see in an image. Perception, 29, pp1071-1086.

Schofield, A.J. & Georgeson, M.A., (1999) Sensitivity to modulations of luminance and contrast in visual white noise: separate mechanisms with similar behaviour, Vision Research, 39, pp 2697-2716.

Schofield, A.J., Stonham, T.J., & Mehta P.A., (1997) Automated people counting to aid lift control, Automation in Construction, 6, pp 437-445.

Schofield, A.J., Mehta, P.A., &  Stonham, T.J., (1996) A system for counting people in video images using neural networks to identify the background scene, Pattern Recognition, 29, pp 1421-1428.

Schofield, A.J., & Foster, D.H., (1995) Artificial neural networks simulating visual texture segmentation and target detection in line-element images, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 350, pp 401-412.