Dr Raj K. Singh Badhan

Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics

Admission Tutor (Pharmacy)


School of Life & Health Sciences
Aston University, Aston Triangle
Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK

Room: Main Building-434C
Email: r.k.s.badhan@aston.ac.uk
 0121 204 3288

Research Group

Applied Health Research Group

Research Centre

Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing (ARCHA) 

Dr Raj K. Singh Badhan
  • Preclinical pharmacokinetics
    • In-vitro ADME studies
    • Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics
    • In-vitro drug transporter and metabolite profiling
  • Clinical Pharmacokinetics
    • Population pharmacokinetics
  • CNS Pharmacokinetics and Drug Delivery 
    • In-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) systems (primary and immortalised cellular systems)
    • In-vitro blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier systems
  • Nasal Drug Delivery
    • Nose-to-brain systems (olfactory targeting)

PH1403: Pharmaceutical Calculations.
PH2503: Medicines Optimisation.
PH3603: Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics.

I joined Aston University in June 2010 as Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics following over 3 years of extensive pharmacokinetics training with the world-renowned Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetics Research as a post-doctorate research associate, within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Manchester.   I have a broad background and interest in identifying and modulating cellular mechanisms impacting upon drug/chemical biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.  Key to this approach has been the merging of bioinformatics and pharmacokinetics in-silico approaches to provide mechanisms that may yielding predictions of human drug biodistribution during early preclinical development phases. 

As a pharmacokineticist and practicing pharmacist, I have a singular vision of developing tools and approaches which provide clear end-user/clinical benefits.  This approach has driven successes in developing preclinical research tools to predict oral drug absorption and central nervous system drug biodistribution.  

The research carried out within our group is highly diverse and we actively encourage the amalgamation of cellular and molecular biology techniques with in silico mathematical approaches to drive the mechanistic prediction and optimisation of in-vivo pharmacokinetics (ADME: absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination) for drugs and novel dosage forms targeting major tissues and organs within the body.

  • MPharm (Masters in Pharmacy) 2(i), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, 2001
  • PhD (Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and Pharmacokinetics), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, 2005  

American Pharmacists Association (APhA) -  Ebert Prize 2010 (Washington DC, USA)

Established in 1873, the Ebert Prize is the oldest pharmacy award in the United States. The award, administered by the APhA Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science, consists of a silver medallion bearing the likeness of Albert Ethelbert Ebert, former APhA president.  I received the award at the APhA Annual Meeting and Exposition in Washington, DC, for the paper entitled “Methodology for Development of a Physiological Model Incorporating CYP3A and P-Glycoprotein for the Prediction of Intestinal Drug Absorption,” published in the June 2009 issue of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.   

  • 2010-date:  Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics, School of Pharmacy, Aston University
  • 2005-2009: Post-Doctorate Research Associate (Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacometrics), Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetics Research (CAPKR), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 2002-date: Locum pharmacist for national pharmacy chains 
  • 2001-2002: Pre-registration pharmacist, Superdrug Pharmacy, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom   


PH1403: Pharmaceutical Calculations.
PH2503: Medicines Optimisation.
PH3603: Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics.


MSc Pharmacokinetics (Programme Director)

Pharmacokinetics plays a vital component in the drug discovery and development process, and provides critical and quantitative knowledge (ADME) on how a drug enters and is processed by the body. Pharmacokinetics aims to quantify and improve prediction at all steps between drug discovery and use with mechanism-based modelling methodologies.

Our goal is to provide guidance in the development, evaluation and implementation of in vitro and in silico approaches for predicting and improving human clinical pharmacokinetics to optimise dosing and pharmacodynamic response.

Whole Body Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling                                                            

We are developing, assessing and evaluating the use of whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to the prediction of drug pharmacokinetic behaviour, utilising drug specific physicochemical, in vitro and nonclinical data along with extensive physiological data. Key to this approach is the development of modular organ/tissue specific models.

Key successes have developed human predictive pharmacokinetics models to assess the extent of oral drug absorption and central nervous systems drug disposition (brain parenchyma cells and cerebrospinal fluid) using a limited set of pre-clinical drug specific parameters.  These approaches are currently being applied to the development of predictive pharmacokinetics models of other human tissues/organs including the placenta, breast tissue, nasal cavity, bone and eye. Current projects include:

  • Regional CNS pharmacokinetic model development
  • Special population pharmacokinetics (Geriatrics)
Middle/inner ear pharmacokinetic model development

Systems biology and bioinformatics:  Drug transporter modelling

To ensure successful drug-based treatment strategies, favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are essential. By modulating these processes we are able to influence the efficacy of disease treatments.  Drug-efflux transporters located within the plasma membrane, which actively extrude agents out of cells, have recently been identified as key mechanisms which have the potential to alter pharmacokinetic properties and are involved in the phenomenon of cancer multidrug resistance.

Research within the group aims to apply bioinformatics approaches to predicting the structure (homology modelling) of pharmacokinetically relevant drug transporter proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and Multidrug Resistance Protein-1 (MRP-1),  and suitable candidate modulators (ligand-docking) of drug-transporters proteins. 

CNS targeting and drug delivery

We are developing, assessing and evaluating the use of in-vitro organtypic cell culture models to assess both blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF-barrier (BCSFB) drug targeting and delivery to the brain.  We are actively working with immortalised and primary cell culture systems to characterise the disposition of drugs across the brain and CSF and the factors that influence this. Current projects include:

Assessing drug transporter (ABCG2) expression and modulation at CNS barriers

Nasal targeting and by-passing the blood-brain barrier                                                                            

In parallel to approaches to deliver drug across the BBB, we are actively engaged in exploiting the olfactory pathways to allow direct ‘nose-to-brain’ drug delivery.  Our research is focussed on the design of appropriate nasal delivery systems which will increase nasal residency but also provide an element of olfactory mucosa targeting.  Our work focusses on both intelligent biopolymer systems and exploiting existing pMDI inhaler technologies for olfactory targeting. Current projects include:

  • Formulation of intelligent ‘responsive’ hydrogel carrier systems
  • Nasal cavity deposition studies using nasal cast methods
Nasal pMDI development for olfactory deposition


Opportunities are available for prospective self-funded MPhil and PhD level research students to conduct research in the area of Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacometrics within the School of Pharmacy. Please contact me for more details.

Collaborative research is welcome and encouraged, please contact me for more details.

I have two  PhD projects in CNS drug delivery available to applicants who are INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS  (based in the UK or overseas) or to any SELF-FUNDED students ONLY. No funding is available for these except for a discount on your tuition fees as detailed on the Post-graduate application webpage (only for international students).


Optimising CNS Drug Delivery: Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic & Systems-Biology Based Model of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier

Enhancing the delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier: a molecular and formulation approach 

  • Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
  • Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences Great Britain (APSGB)
  • United Kingdom and Ireland Controlled Release Society (UKICRS) 
  • R.K.S.Badhan. Impact of drug permeability, active transport and protein binding on central nervous system drug disposition: A systems-based pharmacokinetic approach. Submitted for UKPharmSci 2011 (Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences), May 2011.
  • R.K.S.Badhan. Impact of ageing on oral drug absorption and bioavailability: A systems-based pharmacokinetic approach. Presented at United Kingdom and Ireland Controlled Release Society symposia (Belfast, April 2011)
  • R.K. Badhan, J.Penny, M. Chenel and J. Brian Houston. The impact of drug permeation, unbound fraction and efflux on central nervous system drug disposition. Abstract 206. Drug metabolism reviews (2008) vol. 40 (S1) pp 173-182
  • R.K.Badhan, G. Corkill and J.Penny. Molecular modelling of nucleotide-binding domains of multi-drug efflux transporters. Abstract 616. Anticancer Research (2004) vol. 24 pp. 4269

 Recent publications