Prof Tim S Meese HNC BSc PhD

Professor of Vision Science

School of Life and Health Sciences
Aston University
Birmingham B4 7ET


room: VS34

telephone: +44 (0) 121 204 4130
fax: +44 (0) 121 333 4220

Research Group


Basic and Applied Neurosciences


Research Laboratory

Aston Laboratory for Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE)

Research Centre

Centre for Vision and Hearing Research (CVHR)



Contributor to the Undergraduate Optometry Programme
Contributor to the MSc Cognitive Neuroscience Programme


• Director of the Centre for Vision and Hearing Research
• Director of the Aston Laboratory for Virtual Environments (ALIVE)
• Postgraduate tutor (LHS)

Quick Hits


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Tim photo 2012
Tim Meese (2012)

Career History

Born in 1964, Tim had a brief career as a telecommunications engineer with British Telecom, then graduated from the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne in 1989 with a first class joint honours degree in Computer Science and Psychology. He studied for a PhD under the supervision of Mark Georgeson at the University of Bristol and completed his thesis entitled 'Feature Coding in Human Pattern Vision' in 1993. He then worked as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Birmingham for three years investigating optic flow and complex motion with Mike Harris. He took up an appointment at the Department of Vision Sciences as a Lecturer in 1996, was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2003, Reader in 2008 and Professor in 2011 when he also became the director of Aston University's Centre for Vision and Hearing Research. He has been on the executive committee of the AVA since 1996 (Chairman from 2008-2012) and was a regular organizer of the AVA Christmas Meeting from 1996 - 2008. He is one of four chief editors for the journals Perception and i-Perception and has over 60 full publications. He has held funding from The Wellcome Trust, The Leverhulme Trust, The Wolfson Foundation, BBSRC and EPSRC.

Postgraduate Positions Available

We have no current funding but if you are interested in doing a PhD in my laboratory, please send me your CV.

Teaching Responsibilities

Second-year optometry undergraduate module leader: Vision Science and Research Methods
Third-year optometry undergraduate module leader: Elective Studies
MSc Cognitive Neuroscience lecturer. 

Research Interests

  • Spatial vision
  • Contrast gain control
  • Binocular vision
  • Depth perception
  • Psychophysical methods
  • Complex motion and optic flow
  • Social vision
  • Virtual reality

Teaching Resources (for UG and PG students)

Meese, T. S. (2002) Spatial Vision in Signals and Perception: The Fundamentals of Human Sensation. (Ed. David Roberts), Palgrave, Macmillan: New York. pp 171-183.

Downloads for the original and advanced versions of the above article are available below.

Introduction to spatial vision I (Spatial vision tutorial) DOWNLOAD
Introduction to spatial vision II (Filtering & spatial vision tutorial; updated Feb 2009) DOWNLOAD

The following three powerpoint presentations provide tutorial introduction to some contemporary issues in vision science. They should run on a PC, but are probably best suited to a MAC.

Tutorial 1: Masking and suppression DOWNLOAD
Tutorial 2: Binocular summation and interocular suppression DOWNLOAD
Tutorial 3: Spatial summation (introduced via crowding) DOWNLOAD

Some Vision Links


A dictionary of vision (unsure of your terminology?)
Anatomy and physiology
(from the Schiller lab)
Anatomy and physiology
(David Hubel’s web book)
Archimedes lab
(some visual illusions)
(by John Krantz)
Blind spot assessment, and others (Schieber’s Demos/Expts)
Colour vision
(from the Neitz lab)
Gabori attack
(measure your own contrast sensitivity function)
Illusion works
(more illusions and explanations)
Motion perception
(tutorials and Demos by George Mather)
The eye page
(by Christopher Tyler)
The joy of visual perception
(a web book by Peter Kaiser)
Vision demos etc
(from Project Lite)
Visual perception
(undergraduate tutorials and demos from Tutis Vilis)
What animals see
(well, maybe…)


AVA (once known as the Applied Vision Association)
(a useful library of vision-related images)

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Steve Anderson
Tom Freeman
Mark Georgeson

Robert Hess
Ian Holliday
Klaus Kessler
Ute Leonards
Casimir Ludwig
Kathy Mullen

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Tim’s Psychophysics Research Laboratories


Miro Lab

Tim Meese

VSG2/4, Sony 20” display

Matlab, Pascal

Spatial vision, computational modelling


Monet Lab

Daniel Baker

ViSaGe, CRS stereo goggles, mirror stereoscope, Clinton 20” monochrome display

Matlab, Liberator

Binocular vision, computational modelling


Man Ray Lab

Tim Meese, 3rd year project students

VSG2/4, Eizo 16” display


Complex motion, spatial vision


Magritte Lab

Rob Summers.

ViSaGe, CRS stereo goggles, Clinton 20” monochrome display

Delphi, Matlab, Liberator

Depth cue combination, stereopsis and binocular vision, psychophysical methods, home of the Liberator project (general purpose psychophysical software environment for the VSG2/4, 2/5 and ViSaGe).


Mondrian Lab

Kirsten Challinor, David Holmes

VSG2/3, Nokia 20” display.

Pascal, Delphi, Matlab

Contrast gain control, computational modelling (no colour!)


Munch Lab

Kirsten Challinor, 3rd year project students

VSG2/5, CRS stereo goggles, Clinton 20” monochrome display


Spatial vision, binocular vision, contrast gain control



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The Team (Past & Present)

Tim Meese 250
Tim Meese, Professor
David Holmes, Postgraduate student, Research assistant, Research fellow
Rob Summers, Research fellow
Phil Atkinson
Phil Atkinson, Postgraduate student
Daniel Baker, Postgraduate student, Research fellow, Cake mule
Kirsten Challinor, Research Fellow

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Research funding

  • £200,000. Meese, Kessler, Anderson, Holland & Lumsden (2014). Wolfson Foundation Infrastructure Grant, Towards: Aston Laboratory for Immersive Environments (ALIVE).
  • £648,319. Meese & Georgeson (2009). EPSRC project grant: The spatial integration and segmentation of luminance contrast in human spatial vision.
  • £354,219. Georgeson & Meese (2009). BBSRC project grant: A multi-scle model of binocular fusion in the human visual system.
  • £236,060. Meese & Georgeson (2003). EPSRC project grant: Suppression and summation for contrast gain control in human vision.
  • £134,175: Meese (2003). Wellcome Trust project grant: Perception of depth in human vision: a signal processing framework for cue combination.
  • £13,489: Meese (2001). Leverhulme Trust pilot grant: Perception of depth in human vision: Combining pictorial depth cues.
  • £51,233: Meese (1999). EPSRC project grant: A nonlinear model of spatial filter binding for edge detection in human vision.
  • £9,000: Meese (1998). BBSRC research committee studentship: A performance-based approach to spatial filter combination in human vision.
  • £11,420: Meese & Holliday (1997). Wellcome Trust pilot grant: Cortical oscillators and perceptual segmentation and integration in human vision.
  • £118,416: Georgeson & Meese (1997). BBSRC project grant: Cue combination, spatial integration and binocular fusion in human vision.

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Research papers

  • Meese, T. S., Smith, V. & Harris, M. G. (1995) Induced motion may account for the illusory transformation of optic flow fields found by Duffy and Wurtz. Vision Research, 35, 981-984. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Harris, M. G. & Freeman, T. C. A. (1995) Speed gradients and the perception of surface slant: analysis is two dimensional not one dimensional. Vision Research, 35, 2879-2888. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Freeman, T. C. A. (1995) Edge computation in human vision: anisotropy in the combining of oriented filters. Perception, 24, 603-622. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (1995) Phase-reversal discrimination in one and two dimensions: Performance is limited by spatial repetition, not spatial frequency content. Vision Research, 35, 2157-2167. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (1995) Using the standard staircase to measure the point of subjective equality: A guide based on computer simulations. Perception and Psychophysics, 57, 267-281.
  • Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (1996). Perceived structure of plaids implies variable combination of oriented filters in edge-finding. In Rogowitz, B. E. and Allebach, J. P. (Eds.) Human Vision and Electronic Imaging, Proc. SPIE, 2657, 175-189.
  • Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (1996a) Spatial filter combination in human pattern vision: Channel interactions revealed by adaptation. Perception,25, 255-277. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (1996b) The tilt aftereffect in plaids and gratings: Channel codes, local signs and 'patchwise' transforms. Vision Research, 36, 1421-1437. DOWNLOAD
  • Freeman, T. C. A., Harris, M. G. & Meese, T. S. (1996) On the relationship between deformation and perceived surface slant. Vision Research, 36, 317-322. DOWNLOAD
  • Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (1997) Perception of stationary plaids: The role of spatial filters in edge analysis. Vision Research, 37, 3255-3271. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Harris, M. G. (1997) Computation of surface slant from optic flow: Orthogonal components of speed gradient can be combined. Vision Research. 37, 2369-2379. DOWNLOAD
  • Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (1999) Adaptive filtering in spatial vision: Evidence from feature marking in plaids. Perception, 28, 687-702. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (1999) A model of human pattern perception: Association fields for adaptive spatial filters. Spatial Vision, 12, 363-394.
  • Meese, T. S. & Williams, C. B. (2000) Probability summation for multiple patches of luminance modulation. Vision Research, 40, 2101-2113. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Harris, M. G. H. (2001a) Independent detectors for expansion and rotation, and for orthogonal components of deformation. Perception, 30, 1189-1202. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Harris, M. G. H. (2001b) Broad direction bandwidths for complex motion mechanisms. Vision Research, 41, 1901-1914. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Hess, R. F. & Williams, C. B. W. (2001) Spatial coherence does not affect contrast discrimination for multiple Gabor stimuli. Perception, 30, 1411-1422. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Holmes, D. J. (2002) Adaptation and gain pool summation: Alternative models and masking data. Vision Research, 42,1113-1125. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Anderson, S. J. (2002) Spiral mechanisms are required to account for summation of complex motion components. Vision Research, 42,1073-1080. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Holmes, D. J. (2004) Performance data indicate summation for pictorial depth-cues in slanted surfaces. Spatial Vision, 17, 127-151. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2004) Low spatial frequencies are suppressively masked across spatial scale, orientation, field position, and eye of origin. Journal of Vision, 4, 843-859. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2004) Area summation and masking. Journal of Vision, 4, 930-943. DOWNLOAD
  • Holmes, D. J. & Meese, T. S. (2004) Grating and plaid masks indicate linear summation in a contrast gain pool. Journal of Vision, 4, 1080-1089. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (2005) Carving up the patchwise transform: Towards a filter combination model for spatial vision. Advances in Psychology Research,Volume 34, pp 51-88, Nova Science Publishers, New York. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2005) Interocular suppression is gated by interocular feature matching. Vision Research, 45, 9-15. DOWNLOAD
  • Holliday, I. & Meese, T. S. (2005) Neuromagnetic evoked responses to complex motion are greatest for expansion International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55, 145-157. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Hess, R. F., & Williams C. B. W. (2005) Size matters, but not for everyone: Individual differences for contrast discrimination. Journal of Vision, 5, 928-947 DOWNLOAD
  • Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (2006) Fixed or variable noise in contrast discrimination? The jury’s still out… Vision Research, 46, 4294-4303. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Georgeson, M. A. & Baker, D. H. (2006) Binocular contrast vision at and above threshold. Journal of Vision, 6, 1224-1243. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Holmes, D. J. (2007) Spatial and temporal dependencies of cross-orientation suppression in human vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 127-136. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Summers, R. J., Holmes, D. J. & Wallis, S. A. (2007) Contextual modulation involves suppression and facilitation from the centre and the surround. Journal of Vision, 7(4):7, 1-21 doi:10.1167/7.4.7. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T.S., Holmes, D. J. & Challinor, K. L. (2007) Remote facilitation in the Fourier domain. Vision Research, 47, 1112-1119. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S. & Summers, R. J. (2007) Psychophysical evidence for two routes to suppression before binocular summation of signals in human vision. Neuroscience, 146,435-448. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2007) Anisotropy for spatial summation of elongated patches of grating: A tale of two tails. Vision Research, 47, 1880-1892. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (2007) Binocular interaction: Contrast matching and contrast discrimination are predicted by the same model. Spatial Vision, 20, 397-413. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S., Mansouri, B. & Hess, R. F. (2007) Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in Strabismic amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 48(11), 5332-5338. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Summers, R. J. (2007) Area summation in human vision at and above detection threshold. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 2891-2900. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2007) Binocular contrast interactions; Dichoptic masking is not a single process. Vision Research, 47, 3096-3107. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2008) Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: Attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation. Vision Research, 48, 1625-1640. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese,  T. S., Challinor , K. L. & Summers,  R. J. (2008). A common contrast-pooling rule for suppression within and between the eyes. Visual Neuroscience,  25, 585-601. DOWNLOAD
  • Holliday, I. E & Meese, T. S (2008) Optic flow in human vision: MEG reveals a foveo-fugal bias in V1, specialization for spiral-space in hMSTs, and global motion sensitivity in the IPS. Journal of Vision, 8(10):17, 1-24. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Summers, R. J. (2009) Neuronal convergence in early contrast vision: Binocular summation is followed by response nonlinearity and linear area summation. Journal of Vision, 9(4):7, 1-16. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Baker, D. H. (2009) Cross-orientation masking is speed invariant between ocular pathways but speed dependent within them. Journal of Vision, 9(5):2, 1-15. DOWNLOAD 
  • Summers, R. J. & Meese, T. S. (2009) The influence of fixation points on the contrast detection of patches of grating: Masking and facilitation. Vision Research, 49, 1894-1900. DOWNLOAD 
  • Meese, T. S., Challinor, K. L., Summers, R. J. & Baker, D. H. (2009) Suppression pathways saturate with contrast for parallel surrounds but not for superimposed cross-oriented masks. Vision Research, 49, 2927-2935. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2010) Spatially extensive summation of contrast-energy is revealed by contrast detection of micro-pattern textures. Journal of Vision, 10(8):14, 1-21. DOWNLOAD 
  • Meese, T. S. & Holmes, D. J. (2010) Orientation masking and cross-orientation suppression (XOS): Implications for estimates of channel bandwidth. Journal of Vision. 10(12):9, 1-20.  DOWNLOAD 
  • Meese, T. S. & Baker, D. H. (2011) Contrast summation across eyes and space is revealed along the entire dipper function by a 'Swiss cheese' stimulus. Journal of Vision. 11(1):23, 1-23. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. & Baker, D. H. (2011) A re-evaluation of achromatic spatiotemporal mechanisms: Non-oriented filters are monocular and adaptable. i-Perception, 2, 159-182. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2011) Contrast integration over area is extensive: A three-stage model of spatial summation. Journal of Vision. 11(14):14, 1-16. DOWNLOAD 
  • Baker, D. H. Wallis, S. A., Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (2012) The effect of interocular phase difference on perceived contrast. PLoS ONE, 7(4): e34696, 1-6. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Wallis, S. A., Georgeson, M. A. & Meese, T. S. (2012) Nonlinearities in the binocular combination of luminance and contrast. Vision Research, 56: 1-9.
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2012) Interocular transfer of spatial adaptation is weak at low spatial frequencies. Vision Research, 63: 81-87.
  • Troscianko, T., Meese, T. S. & Hinde, S. (2012) Perception while watching movies: Effects of physical screen size and scene type. i-Perception, 3, 414-425. DOWNLOAD 
  • Meese, T. S., & Summers, R. J. (2012). Theory and data for area summation of contrast with and without uncertainty: Evidence for a noisy energy model. Journal of Vision, 12(11):9, 1-­28. DOWNLOAD
  • Baldwin, A. S., Meese, T. S., & Baker, D. H. (2012). The attenuation surface for contrast sensitivity has the form of a witch's hat within the central visual field. Journal of Vision, 12(11):23, 1­-17. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., & Meese, T. S. (2012). Zero-dimensional noise: The best mask you never saw. Journal of Vision, 12(10):20, 1­-12. DOWNLOAD
  • Gheiratmand, M., Meese, T. S., & Mullen, K. T. (2013). Blobs versus bars: Psychophysical evidence supports two types of orientation response in human color vision. Journal of Vision, 13(1):2, 1­-13. DOWNLOAD
  • Wallis, S. A., Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (2013) The slope of the psychometric function and non-stationarity of thresholds in spatiotemporal contrast vision. Vision Research, 76, 1-10.
  • Meese, T. S. & Baker, D. H., (2013) A common rule for integration and suppression of luminance contrast across eyes, space, time, and pattern. i-Perception, 4(1), 1­-16. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S., & Georgeson M A, (2013). Paradoxical psychometric functions ("swan functions") are explained by dilution masking in four stimulus dimensions. i-Perception, 4(1), 17­-35. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2013). Regarding the benefit of zero-dimensional noise. Journal of Vision, 13(10):26, 1-6. DOWNLOAD
  • Baldwin, A. S., Husk, J. S., Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2014) A two-stage model of orientation integration for Battenberg-modulated micropatterns. Journal of Vision, 14(1):30, 1-21. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2014) Measuring the spatial extent of texture pooling using reverse correlation. Vision Research, 97, 52-58.
  • Summers, R. J., Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S. (2015) Area summation of first- and second-order modulations of luminance. Journal of Vision 15(1):12, 1-13. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2015) Bedazzled: A blue and black ship, dressed to deceive. i-Perception, 6, 111-115. DOWNLOAD
  • Baldwin, A. S. & Meese, T. S. (2015) Fourth-root summation of contrast over area: No end in sight when spatially inhomogeneous sensitivity is compensated by a witch's hat. Journal of Vision 15(15):4, 1-12. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H. & Meese, T. S (2016) Grid-texture mechanisms in human vision: Contrast detection of regular sparse micro-patterns requires specialist templates. Scientific Reports, 6:29764, 1-10. DOWNLOAD
  • Georgeson, M. A., Wallis, S. A., Meese, T. S. & Baker, D. H. (2016) Contrast and lustre: A model that accounts for eleven different forms of contrast discrimination in binocular vision. Vision Research, 129, 98-118. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S., Baker, D. H. & Summers, R. J. (2017) Perception of global image contrast involves transparent spatial filtering and the integration and suppression of local contrasts (not RMS contrast). R. Soc. open sci. 4: 170285. DOWNLOAD
  • Scott-Samuel, N. E., Ashida, H., Lovell, P. G., Meese, T. S. & Schwarzkopf, D. S. (2018) Stacking chairs: Local sense and global nonsense. i-Perception, 9(1), 1-5. DOWNLOAD
  • Baker, D. H., Lygo, F. A., Meese, T. S. & Georgeson, M. A. (2018) Binocular summation revisited: Beyond root 2. Psychological Bulletin. DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2018) The how and why of Consciousness? Frontiers in Psychology, 9:2173, 1-4. DOWNLOAD

Work in progress

  • Summers, R. J. & Meese, T. S. (under revision) Estimating the 2AFC psychometric function: Effects of lapsing, psychophysical procedure and method of curve-fitting. DOWNLOAD


  • Meese, T. S. (1998) Indirect Perception. Irvin Rock. BMVA newsletter.
  • Meese, T. S. (1999) Visual Perception: A Clinical Orientation. Steven H. Schwartz. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.18, 548. (book review)
  • Meese, T. S. (1999) The Motion Aftereffect: A modern Perspective. Mather, G., Verstraten, F. & Anstis, S. (Eds) Perception, 28,927-928. (book review)
  • Meese, T. S. (2002) Spatial Vision in Signals and Perception: The Fundamentals of Human Sensation. (Ed. David Roberts), Palgrave, Macmillan: New York. pp 171-183. SKIP BACK TO DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2007) Basic Vision: An introduction to visual perception. Perception, 36, 160-161. (book review) DOWNLOAD
  • Troscianko, T., Thompson , P. & Meese, T. (2010). Welcome to the first issue of the new journal i-Perception. (editorial announcement) i-Perception, 1, 1-2. GO TO JOURNAL FOR DOWNLOAD
  • Meese, T. S. (2010) Not last, nearly last, almost last, and last but not least. (announcement) Perception, 39, 588-589.

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